Uppsala, archaic spelling Upsala, is a university city in Sweden, 80 kilometres north of Stockholm, and the capital of Uppsala County. With a population of 158,000 (200,000 in the municipality), it is Sweden's fourth largest city. The Uppsala Cathedral, built in the 13th century, is the largest church in the Nordic countries.
Uppsala Municipality also contains the Uppsala countryside.
During the Viking Age, Uppsala was the site of a pagan temple, believed to have been torn down without a trace in the 11th century, as the Swedish people were christianized. In these times, the Baltic Sea reached all the way to Uppsala; however, lake Mälaren was created through post-glacial rebound (see Nordic countries#Understand). In the 12th century, Uppsala became the seat of the Swedish archbishop, and the university was founded in 1477, as the first in Scandinavia. Much of the city burnt down in 1702. This did not prevent Uppsala from rising as a scientific stronghold during the Age of Liberty (frihetstiden) in the 18th century, with world-famous scientists such as Carl von Linné, founder of taxonomic biology, and Anders Celsius, inventor of the Celsius temperature scale. Read more